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PROGRESSIVE COURSE

INYENTIYE DRAWING

PRINCIPLES OF PESTALOZZI,

THE USE OF TEACHERS AND SELF-INSTRUCTION ;

ALSO WITH A VIEW TO ITS ADAPTATION TO

ART AND MANUFACTURE.

WM. J. WHITAKER,

PRINCIPAL OF THE BOSTON SCHOOL OP ART AND DESIGN, AND LECTURER
ON DRAWING IN THE MASSACHUSETTS TEACHERS' INSTITUTES.

JFfrst bourse.

BOSTON:
TTCKNOR, REED, AND FIELDS.

M DCCC LIII.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852, by
WILLIAM J. WHITAKER,

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.

PRINTED BY THURSTON, TORRY, AND EMERSON.

TO

HERMANN KRUSI

(son op the first coadjutor op the venerated pestalozzi),

from whom i received the first principles op this course of inventive

drawing, and to whose kindness and brotherly regard,

i am indebted for many valuable lessons in

the true science op education,

THIS LITTLE WORK

IS VERY AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED BY HIS SINCERE FRIEND AND
FELLOW-WORKER,

WM. J. WHITAKER.

417 Washington Street, Boston,
Aug. 20, 1852.

DEFINITION

OF

GEOMETRICAL FORMS

USED IN THIS COURSE OF DRAWING.

An Angle is formed by the junction of two lines.
A Right Angle is obtained by drawing one straight line perpen-
dicular on another.
An Acute Angle is that which is less than a right angle.
An Obtuse Angle is thai which is greater than a right angle.
A Triangle is a space enclosed by three lines.
A Right-angled Triangle is that which has a right angle.
An Acute-angled Triangle is that which has three acute angles.
An Obtuse-angled Triangle is that which has an obtuse angle.
A Four-sided Figure is a space enclosed by four lines.
A Square is that which has all its sides equal, and all its angles

right angles.
An Oblong, or Rectangle, is that which has all its angles right

angles, and its parallels equal.
A Rhomb is that which has all its sides equal, but its angles

are not right angles.
A Rhomboid is that which has its parallels equal, but its angles

are not right angles.
A Parallel Trapezium is that which has two sides parallel and

two divergent.
A Trapeziod is that which has no parallel sides.
A Circle is a curved line enclosing a space, and at equal distance

in all points from the centre.
An Arc is any part of a circle.

INTRODUCTION

The Author of this Course of Inventive Drawing
addresses himself especially to the Teacher, his object
being to guide him in his efforts to develop a correct
power of design. This can, in his opinion, only be
done by cultivating the inventive faculties, making the
children produce a graduated series of figures of their
own creation, thus combining a correct knowledge of
form with tasteful application.

The Teacher, in placing the figures of the book before
the pupils, making them objects of imitation, would miss
the most interesting feature in the lessons intended to
be conveyed.

Many of the illustrations in this book were designed
by a class of poor children, previously ignorant of draw-
ing. The gradual development of their powers increased
their interest, and led them to discover that they could
create forms surpassing all their previous irregular efforts.

A moment's consideration will show that, when cor-
rectness of eye accompanies inventive talent, the devel-

opment of better taste will introduce into our manu-
factures a spirit of design worthy of execution, and
calculated to increase our comforts, by surrounding us
with articles of utility, beautiful in their form and con-
struction, and at very little more cost than the clumsy
productions we sometimes see around us.

Drawing is essential to all good education, and emi-
nently useful in every branch of manufacture and art.
It aids the workman in carrying out the productions of
the man of science, and cannot fail to make him better
understand the end for which he labors.

The art of designing will be much more appreciated
when, in the Primary and other schools, steps are taken
to develop the fundamental principles of form in con-
nection with correct expression and ingenuity of com-
bination, and this will never be accomplished by copying
alone.

Sir Joshua Reynolds has said, that " Copying is only
a delusive kind of employment," and there appears to
be much truth in the statement; for it certainly is not
calculated to awaken thought or expand the mind ; and
employments which have not such a tendency can
scarcely be called substantial or useful. It is by copying
so much, and neglecting to create for ourselves, that we
do not equal other nations in originality of design.

If we would be truly great in any thing, we must
start from its first elements, and by gradual steps reach
excellence or perfection.

Schelling, the great German philosopher, says, " Every
product of art must, for the sake of clear perception,
be analyzed into its separate elements, though the finished
whole will represent but one harmonious idea. We then
see how it rises out of the depths of our imagination,
by first tracing and defining its limits, and afterwards
developing an infinite richness of form, and combining
them in a tasteful whole, which is presented to the soul of
man."

We propose to arrange the following Lessons in Ele-

The aim of the First will be the development of
simple forms, and their elementary combinations with
straight -and curved lines.

The aim of the Second will be the development of
perspective on the inventive principle, with a view to its
application to the arts and manufactures.

FIRST COURSE

INVENTIVE DRAWING,

BASED UPON LESSONS ON FORM.

FIRST PART.

Exercises with Straight Lines.

All drawing may be reduced to the simple element
of the line, either straight or curved. Fig. 1.

A straight line describes the shortest distance from one
point to another, and always follows the same direction.

At the first step the child must begin with the easier
of the two, the straight line.

Directions of the Straight Line.

A straight line can be either vertical, horizontal, or
slanting. Fig. 2.

It is important to draw from the child a clear idea
of the properties of the straight line. For instance, the
Teacher may hold up a string with a weight attached to
it, and impress this on the children as indicating the
vertical direction. By hanging the string over the black-

10

board, and drawing a line parallel to it, he produces a
vertical line, and directs their attention to outlines of
objects which follow this direction. Having clearly real-
ized this idea, let them draw a number of vertical lines
on their slates.

The horizontal direction is illustrated by the surface
of water, or the equally poised beam of a balance.
After the children have pointed out such lines in the
objects around them, they draw a number of horizontal
lines on their slates.

To illustrate the slanting or oblique line, the Teacher
holding in his hand a pointer, may turn it round before
the children, and, avoiding the vertical and horizontal
direction, lead them to observe, that the slanting line
may incline more or less to the right or left.

THE PRINCIPLES OF COMBINATION.

To combine accurately the simple lines above described,
the power of drawing each correctly is acquired and
augmented with the exercise.

The varying ages and capacities of the children form-
ing the class, demand care on the part of the Teacher,
in order to watch and guide their power of combination.
The constructive process ought naturally to precede the
analytic one ; whereby we observe that a child with natu-
ral inventive faculties will sometimes create forms, incor-
rect in their design, whilst another of more observant

11

nature will abstract the outlines of existing objects without
proper attention to the laws of taste. The good Teacher
endeavors to modify these tendencies, and leads the one
to perceive his want of accuracy ; the other, his need of
more taste in his conceptions.

In both, the power of defining in words the figures
they have produced must be brought into play.

The youngest children will form the simplest combi-
nations, by placing a given number of sticks on the
ground in as many ways as their ingenuity can suggest.
It is one of the best amusements the infant teacher can
introduce, to let the children successively place the sticks,
and afterwards imitate the figures thus formed on their
own slates. By this exercise, the relation between a tan-
gible form produced by the sticks, and the expression of
that form by lines will be clearly developed in their
minds.

We introduce here a lesson on the combination of two
lines, supposing the children before us to be from six to
eight years of age.

Lesson on the Combination of Two Lines.

Teacher. I wish to see two lines drawn on the black-
board ; who will come and do it nicely ?

Child comes and draws two lines. Fig. 3, a.
Teacher. Who can draw two lines differently ?
Child may do it. Fig. 3, b.

12

Teacher. Now, suppose you make one line touch
another ? Fig. 3, d, e, f.

This the children can do in three ways, by leaving a
greater or less space between the lines.

The Teacher may lead them to find some more com-
binations.

The Teacher having let the children exhaust these
combinations, must draw their attention to the difference
between each figure, and eliciting their remarks about
lines at equal distances from each other, may give them
the word " parallel," and apply it to all the figures where
it occurs. Thus making them describe figures a, b, c, as
two parallel horizontal, two parallel vertical, two parallel
slanting lines.

The word "angle" may likewise be given to some of
the combinations ; and after comparing them with each
other, the names "right," "acute," and "obtuse" angle.
The remainder of the figures produced may also be
described in a similar way.

Combination of Three Straight Lines.

The Teacher, after telling the children to place three
sticks in various positions, will have such figures copied on
the blackboard, and will soon obtain the following combi-
nations, based upon the preceding ones — which are to be
described by the children in the same method as mentioned
in the former lesson, namely, the first four combinations

13

being composed of parallels, the others of different
angles. (See Illustration, Fig. 4.)

The triangles produced by these three lines will elicit
the remark, that now they are able to enclose a space.
The difference existing between triangles must be devel-
oped, and the distinctive names applied, such as Right-
angled, Acute-angled, Obtuse-angled.

A fresh and agreeable impulse may be given to this
lesson, by leading the children to discover how many letters
of the Alphabet may be found by the combination of three
lines.

Most likely the children, and especially the bss gifted
ones, will produce irregular and badly executed designs;
and it is important that accuracy and neatness be required.
Their eye must be educated to symmetry, and the most
tasteful designs held up as best, whilst the careless and
disproportioned figures are only brought before the children
to let them discover their defects.

The Combination of Four Straight Lines.

This combination leads to a new feature in the exercise,
namely, the application of this inventive drawing to the
representation of simple objects in nature. But, on enter-
ing this path, the Teacher must guard against being too
severe in what might be called violation of the laws of
Perspective, if the child should attempt to produce some-
thing that is meant to resemble an object. He is rather to
2

14

consider such an attempt as a rough and unfinished, outline
that would afterwards receive a more finished appearance
with the assistance of perspective brought in on a higher
step.

This, however, will limit the designs of this first Course
to be either the representation of rough outlines, or that
of flat surfaces, rejecting all regular indication of breadth
and thickness.

After having collected the most common combinations
with four lines, by which some more of the letters of the
Alphabet are produced, the Teacher may draw on the
blackboard some figures to illustrate the object just men-
tioned. Fig. 5.

The quick perception of the children will discover the
tendency of this hint, and will rapidly produce many other
outlines of material objects, and of four-sided figures
enclosing a space.

These must be particularly dwelt upon, and their respec-
tive qualities described.

Before giving the graduated series of combinations with
straight and curved lines, a few hints upon the manage-
ment of a large class may be acceptable to the Instructor.

HINTS FOR THE PROPER MANAGEMENT OF THE
SUBJECT IN A LARGE CLASS.

The Teacher calls several children, that is, one child
after another, to the blackboard ; and, having specified the

15

combination, lets the child draw its own design. When the
board is full, (which will soon be the case,) the Teacher
effaces the whole, and desires the class to draw as many
of the combinations as they can recollect on their own
slates, together with new combinations which were not
there before. After a certain time he selects off each slate
the best designs, and presents them again to the whole
class, having drawn them nicely upon the blackboard,
pointing out why those figures are the best, and putting
such questions as will illustrate the parts of the design and
elicit the proper name and definition. He may also bid
the children, and especially the less talented ones, copy
correctly the best of the new designs.

The reward of a blank piece of paper, with permission
to bring from home more and better designs, is eagerly
sought for and excites a spirit of emulation and industry.

It is needless to illustrate farther lessons on the com-
binations to be produced by simple straight lines. The
Teacher may prolong and vary such exercises according
to the requirements of his class. He will possibly be more
successful with little children than with older pupils,
because the former enter with more of the proper spirit
into this congenial mode of occupation.

Childhood is the age when the power of combination is
most active. To direct its operations in systematic pro-
gression leads to their application to inventive art, and
prepares the ground for original conceptions in the higher
regions of the arts.

16

The Instructor who has the cause of Education at heart,
will attribute a greater value to these exercises on com-
bination than the mere novelty they may possess, and will
upon a fair trial perceive that these elementary exercises
are the necessary condition for obtaining higher results in
proportion to the child's faculties; he will perceive a
powerful impulse given to the class not only felt during
school hours, but active everywhere in the contemplation
of every work of beauty, thus forming another link in what
may be termed an organic system of Education.

ANGLES.

The Teacher draws the Right, Acute and Obtuse Angles,
leading the Class to a definition of all and a careful
comparison of each with the others. Fig. 6. When
thoroughly understood, let the pupils draw them each
separately, and also in the graduated form of one within
another. Fig. 7. When produced with tolerable correct-
ness, proceed to the

Combination of Two Right Angles.
'Fig. 8, a.

Here the Teacher should draw the attention of his
pupils to the mode of combination, it being requisite to
prevent the angles from touching each other, as it would
increase the elements. We therefore divide Combination
into two classes — namely ,' relative when not touching as
in parallel lines, &c. ; and positive when in absolute con-

17

tact. Relative combination is used in the present and
succeeding exercises.

Combination of Four Right Angles. Fig. 8, b.

Combination of Two Acute Angles. Fig. 9, a.

Combination of Four Acute Angles. Fig. 9, b.

Combination of Two Obtuse Angles. Fig. 10, a.

Combination of Four Obtuse Angles. Fig. 10, b.

Combination of Four Right and Four Acute Angles.
Fig. 11.

Combination of Four Right and Four Obtuse Angles.
Fig. 12.

Combination of Four Right, Four Acute, and Four Ob-
tuse Angles. Fig. 13.

TRIANGLES.

When the combinations of the angles are completed,
place those triangles before the pupils which are dis-
tinguished as the right-angled, acute-angled, and obtuse
angled triangles ; leading them to point out their distinctive
parts and qualities. Fig. 14.

Combine Four Right-angled Triangles.

Combine Four Acute-angled Triangles.

Combine Four Obtuse-angled Triangles.

Combine Four Right and Four Acute-angled Triangles.

Combine Four Right and Four Obtuse-angled Triangles.

Combine Four Right, Four Acute, and Four Obtuse-
angled Triangles.

Combine any number of Triangles. Fig. 15.

18

FOUR-SIDED FIGURES.

The Teacher, in introducing these figures, must point
out to the class that their character depends on their
opposite sides being parallel or divergent, and on the
difference of their angles, as will be seen by compari-
son.

These figures when combined, may be applied to various
objects, as the flat sides of buildings, wherein we allow
some relaxation of the hitherto strictly observed rule of
showing the parts separated, occasionally allowing them to
be fitted together.

Combine Four Squares.

Combine Four Oblongs.

Combine Four Squares and Four Oblongs.

Combine Four Rhombs.

Combine Four Parallel Trapeziums.

Combine Four Rhombs and Four Trapeziums.

Combine Twelve Four-sided Figures. Fig. 16.

Combine any number of Four-sided Figures.

Combine any number of Three and Four-sided Figures.

19

SECOND PART OF THE FIRST COURSE.

COMBINATIONS WITH CURVED LINES.

To introduce the curved line properly, the Teacher
draws it in its simplest form (the arc) on the blackboard,
or slate, together with a straight line, in order to draw the
attention of the children to the difference between them.
They will find by observation that a straight line always
proceeds in the same direction, describing the shortest way
from one point to another, while the curved line con-
tinually changes its direction.

Again, they will see that the sides of the curved line
are very different in character, being concave (hollow) on
the one side, and convex (rounded) on the other, which
may be exemplified by some tangible object, as a watch,
glass, &c.

The Teacher may then let the pupils draw a number
of arcs in different positions, in order to practise first the
drawing of the line itself, and then proceed j-to com-
bination.

CURVILINEAR ANGLES.

By the combination of two curved lines, three angles
may be produced, the definition of which the children
must be led to find for themselves, namely : the Convex,

20

the Concave, and the Mixed Angle — viewing their sides
from the interior. Fig. 17.

Combine Four Concave Angles. Fig. 18.

Combine Four Convex Angles. Fig. 19.

Combine Four Mixed Angles. Fig. 20.

Combine Four Concave and Four Convex Angles. Fig.
21.

Combine Four Concave and Four Mixed Angles. Fig.
22.

Combine Four Concave, Four Convex, and Four Mixed
Angles. Fig. 23.

Combine any number of Curvilinear Angles.

The pupil should be here informed that those designs
are the best and most beautiful which show simplicity in
their construction, and when the conception can be easily
grasped by the observer.

TWO-SIDED FIGURES.

These may be formed in two different ways, both of
which must be defined by the pupils. Fig. 24.
Combine Four Two-sided Figures, No. 1.
Combine Four Two-sided Figures, No. 2.
Combine Four Two-sided Figures, No. 1 and 2.
Combine any number of Two-sided Figures.

CURVILINEAR TRIANGLES.

To supply the want of distinctive names for these
figures, we number them 1, 2, 3, 4. Fig. 25.

21

Combine Four Curvilinear Triangles, No. 1.
Combine Four Curvilinear Triangles, No. 2.
Combine Four Curvilinear Triangles, No. 3.
Combine Four Curvilinear Triangles, No. 4.
Combine Four Curvilinear Triangles, No. 1 and 2.
Combine Four Curvilinear Triangles, No. 3 and 4.
Combine any number of Curvilinear Triangles.
Combine any number of Two and Three-sided Curvi-
linear Figures. Fig. 26.

FOUR-SIDED FIGURES.

When the pupils are called on to produce these figures
they will soon find several of very different character, the
only condition being that the four lines must enclose one
space. The angles in this series will not always be found
inside, but frequently outside ; therefore we arrange them
into two classes, namely —

Four- sided Figures with all their angles inside. Fig. 27.

Four-sided Figures, having part or all their angles out-
side. Fig. 28.

While going through this graduated course of exercises,
the pupils will in all probability have acquired boldness of
execution, and will naturally be induced on this step to
give some of their lines a softer and more undulated
appearance, which must not be checked, as it is a mani-
festation of correct taste. Thus a third class may be
produced. Fig. 29.

22

As the powers of combination will have considerably-
increased, the Teacher may cease to limit the number of
figures to be combined, making the next exercise the

Combination of any number of Four-sided Figures.

Combine any number of Two and Four-sided Figures.

Combine any number of Three and Four-sided Figures.

As a concluding Exercise,* we give the combination
on any number of two, three and four-sided curvilinear
figures, which will well test the efficiency and progress of
the pupils both in execution and design. If well directed,
they will produce many combinations, rich and varied in
character, considering the limited material given as a
foundation, and their conceptive faculties will have re-
ceived a powerful impulse in the right direction, namely,
a longing for the beautiful and true, both in Nature and
Art. Fig. 30.

In going through the various exercises of this elementary
course, it will be requisite for the Teacher to direct his
pupils to the critical examination of the various objects
around, not to copy them mechanically, but to be enabled
to reduce them to their primary basis, • so that the mind
may clearly comprehend the end for which it labors.
Take for instance the Acanthus leaf, a form that most
young designers stumble over without any just cause ; for
if it is examined with care and attention it will be found
to consist only of three simple parts, which many times
repeated make up the whole of that rich and classic
form.

23

The exercises on the curvilinear angles may be pro-
longed at the discretion of the Teacher, and applied to
various forms, such as leaves, flowers, vases, wreaths,
&c. ; requiring, at first, distinctness for every elemental
part, and afterwards allowing them to be united, so train-
ing the pupil to correctness and clearness of application, as
well as giving power to the eye and hand.

To much should never be given at once, and no lesson
should be hurried over, for whatever may be apparently
gained at the beginning, will only cause disappointment
and trouble when on the higher steps.

Another good plan is to direct the pupils to apply the
exercises given to various useful purposes, such as de-
signs for carpets, papers, prints, embroidery, &c. These
designs may never be of any real practical value for
manufacturing purposes, but it will be giving to the student
variety of form, &c, keenness of perception that cannot
be otherwise acquired ; it will lead them to observe that
some forms harmonize with each other, while some do
not, and also point to the necessity of walking this glorious
world with open eyes, so that the mind, catching inspira-
tion from the works of God, may ever be ashamed of pro-
ducing forms at variance with the plan of the great Artist
and Designer of the Universe.

THE END.

IN PREPARATION, BY THE SAME AUTHOR,

THE SECOND COURSE OF INVENTIVE DRAWING,

CONTAINING THE DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF

LINEAR AND SOLID PERSPECTIVE.

ALSO,

A SERIES OF ESSAYS

ON THE USES AND ENDS OF ARTISTIC STUDIES.

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